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SEM and BET studies show that the generated Cu foam possesses robust hierarchical porous architectures with greatly enhanced surface area and pore volume, beneficial for the unimpeded mobility of glucose and reaction products.Cyclic voltammetric tests indicate that a diffusion-controlled glucose electro-oxidation reaction occurs at the Cu foam electrode at around 0.35 V vs. Chronoamperometric results obtained under optimized conditions reveal that the proposed sensor exhibits desired poison resistance ability in the presence of chloride ions and significant selectivity to glucose, providing fascinating sensitivities of 2.57 and 1.81 m A cm for glucose in the linear concentration ranges of 2–80 μM and 0.1–5 m M, respectively.

The sensing interface based on porous Cu foams is directly formed on a homemade disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) substrate by electrodeposition assisted with hydrogen evolution simultaneously, and its porosity can be easily tailored through adjusting deposition conditions for the optimal electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose molecules.The LOD for the capillary array was 5 ug/m L, and that of the plate reader was 1 ug/m L.Similar results were obtained using DNA stained with fluorescein.The low sensitivity of Mobile Health (m Health) optical detectors, such as those found on mobile phones, is a limiting factor for many m Health clinical applications.To improve sensitivity, we have combined two approaches for optical signal amplification: (1) a computational approach based on an image stacking algorithm to decrease the image noise and enhance weak signals, and (2) an optical signal amplifier utilizing a capillary tube array.

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